What Are the Two Kinds of Type 2 Diabetes

What Are the Two Kinds of Type 2 Diabetes?

• Insulin deficiency. Insulin is required for glucose to enter into the cell. When beta cells in the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, that insulin deficiency causes glucose to build up in the bloodstream, resulting in high blood glucose. This condition damages the cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as the kidneys.

• Insulin resistance. Obese individuals release chemicals and hormones from fat tissues into the bloodstream, causing insulin resistance—characterized by a high blood level of insulin and lack of insulin elsewhere in the body. Despite enough insulin being produced by the pancreas, insulin is unable to open the door for glucose to get into the cell, leading to high blood glucose and causing damage to organs and tissues.

Type 2 diabetes, a disease that interferes with glucose metabolism, affects mostly adults. Glucose is the major fuel for energy production in the body. Inability to metabolize glucose and convert it to energy causes a multitude of pathological changes and malfunctions in organs and tissues. In recent years, more children ages 8–10 are afflicted with type 2 diabetes, which coincides with the prevalence of childhood obesity. In the US, 20 million people suffer from type 2 diabetes, and an additional 87 million people are prediabetic.

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