What Are the Risk Factors for Glaucoma

What Are the Risk Factors for Glaucoma

What Are the Risk Factors for Glaucoma?

• Age. The older the person, the higher his risk of glaucoma. Individuals aged 60 have a sixfold increased risk of glaucoma compared to those aged 20.

• Family and genetics. All three major types of glaucoma are related to genetics. CAV1/CAV2 and TMCO1 gene mutations are associated with open-angle glaucoma, PLEKHA7 and COL11A1 gene mutations are linked to closed-angle glaucoma, and CYP1B1 gene mutations are related to congenital glaucoma.

• Eye injuries. Eye injuries, particularly damage incurred in the fluid discharge passage in the front of the eyeball, increase the risk of glaucoma. People whose cornea thickness near the center is less than 0.5 mm have an increased risk of glaucoma.

• Hypertension. Sodium ion transport disorders are common in hypertension and glaucoma patients. Hypertension causes the kidneys to retain excessive sodium ions, while glaucoma causes the eyes to retain excessive sodium ions. Hypertension exerts extra pressure on the eyes of glaucoma patients and exacerbates the symptoms of glaucoma.

• Diabetes. Diabetes increases the risk of glaucoma. About 5% of patients with diabetes have glaucoma, while only 2% of people without diabetes suffer from it. Diabetes brings on damage to the microvascular structure in the optic nerve and increases the risk of open-angle glaucoma.