What Are the Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

What Are the Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

What Are the Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease?

• Smoking. Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals that enter the bloodstream and travel to the heart. These toxic chemicals can induce inflammation and blood clot formation in the heart. These smoke-related chemicals can also induce the oxidation of LDL. Oxidized LDL becomes embedded in the coronary arteries, leading to plaque formation and atherosclerosis.

• Diabetes. High blood glucose causes systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in the coronary arteries. Leucocytes and oxidized LDL build up on the injured endothelial layer of the coronary arteries and form plaques and blood clots, increasing the risk of coronary artery disease.

• Obesity. Fat tissues release hormones and other chemicals that can lead to insulin resistance. Obesity also raises blood levels of LDL and triglycerides. Excessive fats, such as LDL and triglycerides, in the bloodstream can lead to endothelial dysfunction and plaque formation.

• High triglycerides. High blood levels of triglycerides increase the risk of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. Genomic studies revealed that certain gene mutations were common in individuals with high blood levels of triglycerides and coronary artery disease, suggesting that high blood levels of triglycerides increase the risk of coronary artery disease.

• Hypertension. Hypertension can lead to endothelial dysfunction, plaque formation, and atherosclerosis. Hypertension also enlarges the atrium, which increases the risk of coronary artery disease.

• Hypercholesterolemia. High blood levels of LDL elevate the risk of coronary artery disease. Oxidized LDL can become embedded in the endothelial layer of blood vessels, leading to plaque formation. Leucocytes, fat, and cholesterol are deposited onto ruptured plaques and form blood clots, causing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

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