What Are the Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

What Are the Causes of Type 2 Diabetes?

• Family and genetics. Genetics is linked to type 2 diabetes. Unfavorable conditions in the uterus, such as high blood glucose and hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy, cause epigenetic modifications in the genomes of infants, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes in newborns.

• Obesity. Fat tissues in obese people release fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, and inflammatory cytokines into the bloodstream, leading to insulin resistance, which forces the pancreas to work harder to produce more insulin. Working extra shifts over a long period of time injures insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, causing type 2 diabetes. In addition, accumulation of fat in the abdomen rather than in the thighs or legs increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in obese people.

• Diet. High sugar consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Fructose from sugar is converted to fat in the liver. Excessive fat buildup in either subcutaneous or visceral regions causes obesity, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

• Little physical exercise. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity in the muscles and decreases the risk of insulin resistance. Exercise also enhances glucose metabolism in muscle cells and lowers the blood glucose level. Lack of physical exercise increases the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

• Age. Aging adversely affects the ability of beta cells to produce insulin and hampers the growth and proliferation of insulin- producing beta cells in the pancreas.

• Hypertension. High blood pressure is common among patients with type 2 diabetes. About 75% of type 2 diabetes patients suffer from hypertension. Likewise, hypertensive patients have a high incidence rate of type 2 diabetes. Hypertension can lead to insulin resistance and heighten the risk of type 2 diabetes.