How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed

How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed

How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed?

• Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Glucose reacts chemically with hemoglobin in red blood cells to form an adduct called HbA1c. The amount of HbA1c correlates with the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. The higher the blood glucose level, the higher the HbA1c level. A 5% HbA1c value means that 5 out of 100 hemoglobin molecules are glycated by glucose in the bloodstream. An HbA1c value over 6.5% is indicative of diabetes, between 5.7– 6.4% is prediabetes, and below 5.7% is normal.

• Fasting blood glucose test. The blood glucose test is taken after fasting overnight. A blood glucose level below 100 mg/dl is normal, between 101–125 mg/dl is prediabetes, and over 126 mg/dl is diabetes.

• Autoantibodies. The presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD65) or islet cell antibodies (ICA) in the bloodstream is indicative of type 1 diabetes. Detection of these autoantibodies in the blood is often used to diagnose type 1 diabetes.

• Ketone bodies. A high blood level of ketone bodies in the bloodstream is a marker of type 1 diabetes.

Recommendation

• Prevention. For new babies at risk of type 1 diabetes, take daily 400 IU vitamin D3 (11).

• Prevention. For adults at risk of type 1 diabetes, take daily 800 IU vitamin D3 (11).

• Treatment. For type 1 diabetes patients, take daily 2,000 IU vitamin D3 (11).

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